Jaffna is the capital city of Northern province of Sri Lanka. It is the administrative headquarters of the Jaffna District with a population of 88,138 in 2012.
The city is surrounded by Jaffna Lagoon to its west and south, Kokuvil and Tirunelveli to the north, and Nallur to the east. Jaffna peninsula is made of limestone as it was submerged under sea during the Miocene period.
Jaffna features a tropical savanna climate with a dry season between February and August, and a wet season between September and January. Jaffna has the highest average temperature in Sri Lanka of 83 °F (28 °C).
The Portuguese established Jaffna city in 1621 as their colonial administrative center.